除了常见的明喻、暗喻、拟人,英语中还有许多修辞手法

发布日期:2018-03-30 作者:来源于网络 点击:

除了最常见的明喻、暗喻、拟人,英语中还有许多修辞手法。有一些可能是你常常见到却没有意识到的。

1. Simile 明喻

  1. Simile 明喻

  明喻是将具有共性的不同事物作比照。这种共性存在于人们的心里,而不是事物的天然特点。

  标志词常用 like, as, seem, as if, as though, similar to, such as等。

  例如:

  1). He was like a cock who thought the sun had risen to hear him crow.

  2). I wandered lonely as a cloud.

  3). Einstein only had a blanket on, as if he had just walked out of a fairy tale.

  2. Metaphor 隐喻,暗喻

大连外语培训

  隐喻是简缩了的明喻,是将某一事物的称号用于另一事物,经过比较构成。

  大连外语培训举例:

  1). Hope is a good breakfast, but it is a bad supper.

  2). Some books are to be tasted, others swallowed, and some few to be chewed and digested.

  3. Metonymy 借喻,转喻

  借喻不直接说出所要说的事物,而使用另一个与之相关的事物称号。

  I、以容器替代内容,例如:

  1).The kettle boils.

  水开了。

  2).The room sat silent.

  全屋人安静地坐着。

  II、以资料、东西替代事物的称号,例如:

  Lend me your ears, please.

  请听我说。

  III、以作者替代作品,例如:

  a complete Shakespeare 莎士比亚全集

  IV、以具体事物替代抽象概念,例如:

  I had the muscle, and they made money out of it.

  我有力气,他们就用我的力气赚钱。

  4. Synecdoche 提喻

  提喻用部分替代全体,或用全体替代部分,或特别替代一般。

  例如:

  1). There are about 100 hands working in his factory.

  (部分代全体)他的厂里约有100名工人。

  2). He is the Newton of this century.

  (特别代一般)他是本世纪的牛顿。

  3). The fox goes very well with your cap.

  (全体代部分)这狐皮围脖与你的帽子很相配。

  5. Synaesthesia 通感,联觉,移觉

  这种修辞法是以视、听、触、嗅、味等感觉直接描写事物。通感就是把不同感官的感觉交流起来,借联想引起感觉搬运,“以感觉写感觉”。

  例如:

  1)The birds sat upon a tree and poured forth their lily like voice.


  (用视觉描述听觉,鸟落在树上,由它宣布的声响联想到百合花)

  鸟儿落在树上,倾泻出百合花似的声响。

  2)Taste the music of Mozart.

  (用嗅觉描述听觉)品味Mozart的音乐。

  6. Personification 拟人

  拟人是把生命赋予无生命的事物。

  例如:

  1)The night gently lays her hand at our fevered heads

  (把夜拟人化)

  2)I was very happy and could hear the birds singing in the woods.

  (把鸟拟人化)

  7. Hyperbole 夸大

  夸大是以言过其实的说法表达着重的意图。它能够加强语势,添加表达作用。

  例如:

  1)I beg a thousand pardons.

  2)Love you. You are the whole world to me, and the moon and the stars.

  3)When she heard the bad news, a river of tears poured out.

  8. Parallelism 排比,平行

  这种修辞法是把两个或两个以上的结构大体相同或类似,意思相关,口气共同的短语。句子摆放成串,构成一个全体。

  例如:

  1)No one can be perfectly free till all are free; no one can be perfectly moral till all are moral; no one can be perfectly happy till all are happy.

  2)In the days when all these things are to be answered for, I summon you and yours, to the last of your bad race, to answer for them. In the days when all these things are to be answered for, I summon your brother, the worst of your bad race, to answer for them separately.

  9. Euphemism 含蓄,婉辞法

  婉辞法指用含蓄,文雅的办法表达粗恶,避忌的话。

  例如:

  1)He is out visiting the necessary. 他出去便利一下。

  2)His relation with his wife has not been fortunate. 他与妻子联系不融洽。

  3)My mother passed away in 1997. (去世)

  10. Allegory 讽喻,比如(本意“寓言”)

  建立在假借曩昔或别处的案例与目标之上,传达暗示,暗射或许讥讽现世各种现象的意义。

  例如:

  1)Make the hay while the sun shines.

  表层意义:趁着出太阳的时分晒草

  实在意味:趁热打铁

  2)It's time to turn plough into sword.

  表层意义:是时分把犁变成剑

  实在意味:要开战了

  11. Irony 反语

  反语指用相反意义的词来表达意思的作文办法。如在责备过错、错误时,用附和过错的说法,而在表彰时,则近乎非难的说法。

  例如:

  1)It would be a fine thing indeed not knowing what time it was in the morning.

  早上没有时刻观念还真是一件功德啊(实在意义是应该清晰早上的时刻观念)

  2)"Of course, you only carry large notes, no small change on you. "the waiter said to the beggar.

  服务生对那个乞丐说:“当然了,你身上只要大钞,不会有零钱的。”

  12. Pun 双关

  双关就是用一个词在句子中的两层意义,借题发挥。作出多种解说,旁敲侧击,然后到达意想不到的诙谐、诙谐作用。它主要以类似的词形、词意和谐音的办法呈现。

  例如:

  1)She is too low for a high praise, too brown for a fair praise and too little for a great praise.

  2)An ambassador is an honest man who lies abroad for the good of his country.

  3)If we don't hang together, we shall hang separately.

  13. Parody 仿拟

  这是一种仿照名言、警句、谚语,改动其间部分词语,然后使其发生新意的修辞。


  例如:

  1)Rome was not built in a day, nor in a year.

  2)A friend in need is a friend to be avoided.

  14. Rhetorical question 修辞疑问(反诘)

  它与疑问句的不同在于它并不以得到答复为意图,而是以疑问为手段,获得修辞上的作用,其特点是:必定问句表明激烈否定,而否定问句表明激烈的必定。它的答案往往是显而易见的。

  例如:

  1)How was it possible to walk for an hour through the woods and see nothing worth of note?

  2)Shall we allow those untruths to go unanswered?

  15. Antithesis 对照,比照,对偶

  这种修辞指将意义彻底相反的句子排在一同比照的一种修辞办法。

  例如:

  1)Not that I loved Caeser less but that I loved Rome more.

  2)You are staying; I am going.

  3)Give me liberty, or give me death.

  16. Paradox 隽语

  这是一种形似对立,但包含必定道理的意味深长的说法,是一种对立修辞法。

  例如:

  1)More haste, less speed.

  欲速则不达。

  2)The child is the father to the man.

  (童年时代可决定人之未来)三岁看大,四岁看老。

  17. Oxymoron 反意法,逆喻

  这也是一种对立修辞法,用两种不相谐和的特征描述一个事物,以不协调的调配使读者领悟句中奇妙的意义。

  例如:

  1)No light, but rather darkness visible.

  2)The state of this house is cheerless welcome.

  18. Climax 渐进法,层进法

  这种修辞是将一系列词语依照意念的巨细、轻重、深浅、高低一级逐层渐进,最终到达极点。能够增强语势,逐步加深读者形象。

  例如:

  1)I am sorry, I am so sorry, I am so extremely sorry.

  2)Eye had not seen nor ear heard, and nothing had touched his heart of stone.

  19. Anticlimax 渐降法

  与climax相反的一种修辞法,将一系列词语由大到小,由强到弱地摆放。

  例如:

  1)On his breast he wears his decorations, at his side a sword, on his feet a pair of boots.

  2)The duties of a soldier are to protect his country and peel potatoes.

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